Criticism is the practice of judging the merit and faults of something
The judger is called a critc.
To engage in criticism is to criticise(in British English)or criticize(in American English).
Criticism as an evaluate or corrective exercise can occur in any area of human life. Criticism can therefore take many different forms. How exactly people go about criticizing,can vary a great deal. In specific areas of human endeavor, the form of criticism can highly be specialized and technical:it often required professional knowledge to understand the criticism.
Origins of the evolution of the meaning of the expression “criticism”
Early English meaning
- The English word criticism is derived from the French word “critique” which dates back to at least the 14th century.
- The words “critic” and “critical” existed in the English language from the mid-16th century, and the word “criticism” first made its appearance in English in the early 17th century.
- In turn,the French expression critique has roots in Latin(“criticus”-a judge,decider,or a critic),and even earlier,classical Greek language (“kritos” means able to make judgement, or the critic).
The early English meaning of criticism was primarily literary criticism, that of judging and interpreting literature. Samuel Johnson often held as the prime example of criticism in the English language, and his contemporary Alexander Pope’s Essay on criticism is a significant landmark.in the course of the 17th century,it acquired the more general sense of leisure, as well as the more specialized meaning of the “discernment of taste”,i.e. the art of estimating the qualities and character of literary or artistic works,implicitly from the point of view of a consumer.
To be critical meant,positively,to have good,informed judgement about matters of culture (to be cultivated,to be a man or woman of distinction),but negatively it could also refer to the (unreasonable)rejection or(unfair) treatment of some outside group(“to be critical of them”).
In the 19th century,criticism also gained the philosophical meaning of “a critical examination of the faculty of knowledge”,particularly in the sense used by Immanuel Kant. Such criticism was carried out mainly by academic authorities, businessmen and men of property with the leisure to denote themselves to the pursuit of knowledge.
In the 20th century,the shape and meanings of criticism were influenced considering by wars(including two world wars)occuring almost continuously somewhere in the world.
Philosophers such as Karl Popper and lmre Lakatos have popularized the idea,that criticism is a normal part of scientific activity. Relatedly,”scientific criticism” has become a standard expression,just as much as “literary criticism”. Gradually it was accepted that criticism is a normal process in a Democratic society,rather than a sign of inadequacy, or something that should be strictly controlled or repressed.
From the 1990s,the popular learning of the word criticism have started to evolve more strongly toward “having on objection”,”expressing dissent”,”stating dislike”,”wanting to dissociate from something”,or “rejecting something”(if you liked it,you would not be criticizing it”). In the contemporary sense,criticism is often more the expression of an attitude, where the object of critisism may only be vaguely defined. For example,somebody “unlikes” a page or stop following somebody on Twitter
In general,there is less money in literary criticism,while it has become easier for anyone to publish anything at a very low cost on the internet without necessarily being vetted through critically by other.
Together with the ability to make finer distinctions of meaning with the aid of digital equipment, the possibilities for ambiguity in criticism being implied,or is it not,and if so,what exactly is the criticism? It can take more effort to unravel the full story.
Criticism can be:
- Directed toward a person or an animal;at a group,authority or organizations;at a specific behaviour, or at an object of some kind (an idea,a relationship,a condition,a process,or a thing ).
- Personal(delivered directly from one person to another,in a personal capacity),or impersonal (expressing the viem of an organization, and not aimed at anyone personally).
- Highly specific and detailed,or very abstract and general.
- The result of critical thinking of spontaneous impulse.
Different kinds of criticisms can be distinguished as type using the following criteria:
- Point of view from which the criticism is made(“from what angle is the criticism made).
- content of criticism,what it consists of(“what is the criticism).
- Purpose, motive,(“why”is the criticism being raised,what is it’s aim).
- Form of criticism,medium of expression (in what “style”or format is the criticism presented).
- Method of delivery,transmission for the criticism (“how”,is the criticism conveyed).
- Type of critic,is the source making the criticism (“from who”criticism originates ).
- Target of the criticism(criticism “of whom”)context place, setting or situation for the criticism (“where”is the criticism being made).
In dealing with criticism, usually the most important aspects are who make criticism,what the criticism is about,and what or whom it is aimed at.
Area of study
The psychology of criticism is primarily concerned with
- “The motivation,
- The meaning,
- The effect,
- How people respond ,
- The quantity and quality,
- The form,
- How people learn to give and receive criticism successfully.
- The sublimation,repression or denial of criticism”.
Parents,teacher,lawyers,managers and politicians are often concerned with these issues,because it can make a great deal of difference to how problems are tackled and resolved.
The most basic rule
The most basic “rule of thumb” of critics which psychologists usually recommend is:
“Respect the individuals,focus the criticism on the behaviour that needs changing-on what people actually do or actually say.”See more…